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The Technology Platform «Air mobility and aviation technologies» – is a way of uniting the state, business and the scientific community to modernize the air transportation system of Russia based on the implantation of indigenous technologies. At the initial stage of its development (2010-2015), the Technology Platform made a significant contribution to the development and approval of key documents for the strategic development of the industry – the state program «Development of the aviation industry for 2013-2025», the draft National Plan for the Development of Science and Technology in aviation industry; the Platform organized and held more than 50 thematic events on topical issues of aviation industry and air transport in the Russian Federation, more than 200 research and prospective aircraft development projects were considered; considerable experience of expertise has been gained.
In order to unite organizations to promote aviation development and ensure the functioning of the Technology Platform, on December 1, 2015, on the basis of the Platform, the Association of organizations to promote aviation development «Technology platform «Air mobility and aviation technologies» was established. The foundation and launch of the Association opens a new stage in the development of the Technology platform due to the higher level of organization and coordination between participants. The formation of a legal entity allows us to provide not only technical support for the functioning of the Platform, but also makes it possible to move on to real project work.
Technology Platform General Information
The development of the technology platforms in the Russian Federation began in 2010-2011, when on the initiative of the Government, international experience was actively studied and the basic principles of the functioning of platforms were laid. In formulating the principles of activity of Russian technology platforms, the European model was adopted as the basis, the development of which in the countries of the European Union has been carried out since the 2000s.
The closest analogue of the Technology platform «Air mobility and aviation technologies» is the Advisory Council for Aeronautics Research in Europe (ACARE), which was created in 2001 and developed the first version of the Strategic Research Program (currently – Strategic Research and Innovation Agenda, SRIA), aimed at ensuring the achievement of the goals formulated in the document developed the year before, «European Aeronautics: A Look in the year 2020». ACARE currently includes almost all the leading European aircraft manufacturers, research centers, universities, airlines, airports, suppliers of air navigation services and MRO services, fuel producers, representatives of EU member states, the European Commission and regulators, as well as a number of aircraft manufacturers from non-EU countries (total – 112 organizations).
The experience of most countries implementing the industrial development model in a market economy shows that companies usually don’t have enough funds to finance search and applied research and development, which are considered to be quite risky investment objects. Leading countries focused on technological leadership and market development make significant government investments in this area; at the same time, there is a serious problem of prioritization – that is, determining the directions in which you need to invest in order to maximize the return on investment – in new products and technologies that can enter the market and take its rightful place in it.
The technology platforms of the European Union are precisely those associations in which business and science, with the participation of the state, coordinate their efforts to determine priorities and finance the most promising technological areas. The participation of business in technological platforms is a guarantee that research projects will be focused on practical application, and the results of promising developments will be implemented in the form of commercial products (technologies) adapted to the market conditions.
The Technology Platform «Air mobility and aviation technologies» was created on November 29, 2010 and is included in the List of technology platforms approved by the Government Commission on High Technologies and Innovations (Protocol of April 1, 2011 No. 2).
The organizations initiating the formation of the Platform were:
- FSUE «Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute named after professor N.E. Zhukovsky» (TsAGI);
- FSUE «Central Institute of Aviation Motors named after P.I. Baranov» (CIAM);
- FSUE «State Research Institute of Aviation Systems» (GosNIIAS);
- FSUE «State Research Institute of Civil Aviation» (GosNII GA).
Subsequently, the United Aircraft Corporation, State Corporation «Rostec», JSC «Russian Нelicopters», JSC «United Engine Corporation», JSC «Aeroflot», Volga-Dnepr - Unique Air Cargo, Moscow Aviation Institute, other leading Russian design and manufacturing companies, universities joined the Technology Platform.
The strategic goal of the Technology platform «Air mobility and aviation technologies» is development and implementation technologies to radically improve air mobility of citizens in Russia, increase the volume of cargo transportation and other aviation work for various sectors of the economy, which will predetermine the emergence of new markets for high-tech products and services, as well as ensure the rapid dissemination of advanced technologies in both the aviation and related branches.
The main areas (groups of technologies) developed under the Technology Platform are:
- technologies for the development of aircraft of various classes and purposes;
- technologies for the development of an air traffic control system (air traffic management system);
- technologies for the development of ground-based aviation infrastructure (aerodromes and airports).
The main requirements for the development of technologies within the framework of the Platform are:
- full compliance with existing and future requirements for aviation safety and security;
- compliance with existing and future environmental requirements;
- improving energy efficiency and energy saving;
- physical and economic (financial) accessibility of air transport and aviation services (Memorandum of Education for the Platform).
According current Russian strategic and methodological documents, technology platforms are considered as one of the key coordination and cooperation mechanisms for the implementation of the national scientific, technical and innovation policy, within which science, the state, business structures and consumers are able to develop a common vision of the technological development prospects of the relevant industry or technological area; to develop and implement a strategic research and innovation program.
Given the stabilization stage of the development of the Russian aircraft industry and the presence of a number of serious industry-wide problems, including the low share of civilian products, poor coordination between science, industry and airlines (operators), the significant share of imports in civilian aircraft – the most important task of the Technology platform «Air mobility and aviation technologies» is participation in the formation and improvement of industry-wide (state) policy.
Also, technology platforms are able to play an important role at the stage prior to commercialization, by expanding and coordinating research and development works; provide effective support for the implementation and commercialization of the most promising technologies; actively participate in improving the legal regulation of scientific, technical and innovative activities.
The formation and functioning of technology platforms is considered as important tool to increase the openness of the innovation system, create additional demand for research and development of educational and scientific organizations, as well as attract small innovative businesses to achieve the goals of the state innovation policy.
The main stages of the development of TP «Air mobility».
Technology Platform Participants.
At the initial stage of the Technology Platform's activities (in 2011-2015), the main emphasis was placed on organazing on the base of the Planform a wide and effective communication platform. During this period, a large number of thematic events were held (more than 50 in total) on topical issues in the development of aviation industry and air transport in the Russian Federation: planning work to research and development, organizing interaction between science and industry; consideration and approval of key strategic and program documents (the state program «Development of the aviation industry for 2013-2025», the National Plan for the Development of Science and Technology in the aviation industry, the Transport Strategy of the Russian Federation, and etc.); more than 200 research and prospective aircraft development projects were examined; significant experience of expertise has been gained.
The high-quality organization and carrying out of these events, the professional approach to the formulation and discussion of the thematic issues made it possible to attract a wide range of organizations and experts from the aviation and related industries to the Platform, to ensure the foundation of a specialized management organization – the Association «Technology platform «Air mobility and aviation technologies», the founders of which were 45 organizations.
Currently, 67 organizations are members of the Association; and the total number of organizations participating in the Technology platform is 127 organizations.
Association Management Structure
The main management bodies of the Association are:
- The General Members Meeting;
- The Supervisory Board;
- The Executive Board;
- The Chairman of the Executive Board acting as the sole management body of the Association;
- the Expert Council, the main functions of which are to coordinate the expert activities of the Platform and make decisions based on the results of the examination of projects (results of work performed; under development).
The Supervisory Board of the Association consists of 16 members; the Chairman of the Supervisory Board is the Science and Technology Advisor of President of PJSC UAC, corresponding member of the RAS Boris S. Alyoshin.
The Executive Board of the Association includes 32 members. The Chairman of the Executive Board of the Association is the General Director of CJSC «Expert's group «KUTRI» Alexey A. Kim.
Association Executive Board Meeting
Currently our Association is carrying out analytical work in the following main areas:
- key issues in the development of aviation industry and air transport in the Russian Federation;
- mechanisms for managing research and development;
- priority areas and projects of the Technology Platform (including formed mechanisms and methods for organizing project work).
As for project activities, the main emphasis in the work of the Platform in previous years was placed on participating in the implementation of the Federal Target Program «Research and Development in Priority Directions for the Development of the Russian Science and Technology Complex for 2014-2020». Based on the proposals of the TP «Air mobility and aviation technologies», 4 tender lots were announced (13 winning projects) for a total of 411.7 million rubles (budget financing). The winners of the competitions of the Ministry of Education and Science of Russia were 30 projects supported by the Platform, for a total amount of 2,745.9 million rubles, including budget financing – 1,489.7 million rubles, extra-budgetary co-financing – 1,256.2 million rubles.
Despite the fact that these projects (works) were mainly initiated by the organizations themselves - applicants or their industrial partners – all of them correspond to the topics (directions) of the Technology Platform activity; and for the Platform, it is important to carry out regular monitoring and expertise of their developmant, including to identify promising results and assess the possibilities of their implementation in existing or new commercial aircraft projects.
In 2018, we began negotiations with key TP participants on the formation on the basis of the Association of a kind of financial «hub» – an integrator that ensures the consolidation of finance resources of interested organizations, planning, coordination and implementation of joint projects that meet the profile of the Platform and at the same time aimed at solving common tasks for these organizations.
In such a projects, the Association may act as the lead contractor, whose main functions are:
- organization and coordination of work;
- selection of the most qualified performers and collaborators;
- ensuring the quality and effectiveness of work (results);
- responsibility for the results of work;
- promoting the results of work and developed initiatives (projects, thematic topics) in federal government bodies, specialized foundations and development institutions;
- attraction of additional financing and co-financing.
The most qualified experts and specialists (organizations) who are responsible for the results of work on specific issues (areas of work) may be involved as project executors (co-executors) of work on projects in agreement with customers (financial partners).
The structure of the project teams (consortia) formed for the implementation of research or technological projects, it is planned to include representatives of organizations and specialists representing various groups of organizations and teams, both scientific (applied, university, academic, aviation science), and manufacturing (design organizations; technology and engineering companies). Potential consumers of the planned results (manufacturing and design organizations, airlines, airport operators) must be involved as participants (experts) of the project.
As sources of financing for these projects (works), we consider state and federal target programs in the field of development of aviation industry and air transport of the Russian Federation, as well as intersectoral (federal) programs to support science, industry and technology; specialized foundations and development institutions focused on supporting promising research and development; funds of Russian and foreign companies interested in implementing specific projects (works).
Financial support for scientific and technical projects (works) that are in the early stages of technological readiness is planned to be carried out mainly through subsidies for fundamental and exploratory research, as well as specialized funds (Russian Science Foundation, Russian Foundation for Basic Research).
Research and technological projects focused on the development of specific products should be supported by sectoral and cross-sectoral state and federal targeted programs and financed by appropriate subsidies. Industrial companies (business structures) must necessarily participate in the implementation of such projects, including design, manufacturing, operational, engineering, service and other enterprises and organizations of the real sector of the economy, the main tasks of which are: the most correct setting of tasks, independent examination (assessment, acceptance) of the results of the work performed, ensuring the necessary extrabudgetary co-financing.
Further promotion of the results of intellectual activity obtained in these projects can be carried out in the framework of public-private partnership with the participation of specialized funds and development institutions (Russian Venture Company, Skolkovo Fund, Innovation Promotion Fund, Industrial Development Fund, etc.), as well as other forms of support for innovation and investment.
In 2018, the Association concluded and successfully executed the first commercial contract for the research work «Research on the aircraft industry market as a customer sector of aircraft piston engines. Formation of the basic requirements for the technical appearance of a promising aircraft piston engine» (customer – FSUE «CIAM named after P.I. Baranov»). In addition to studying and summarizing the technical and operational requirements for aircraft piston engines by aircraft developers and manufacturers (in total, the opinions of 17 Russian companies were taken into account) – as part of the work, an analysis and forecasting of the needs for aircraft piston engines in the domestic market of the Russian Federation was carried out; and on the basis of analysis of almost all previously developed and currently produced in the world aircraft piston engines, detailed designs and technologies were proposed ensuring the development of competitive on domestic and world markets aviation piston engines.
In 2019, the Association carried out the next scientific and analytical work «Development of the Complex program for the development of the experimental and testing infrastructure for the aircraft industry of the Russian Federation» (customers – FSBI Research Center «Institute named after Zhukovsky» and FSUE «TsAGI»). For the first time in Russian practice, methodological approaches to the planning and implementation of measures for the maintenance and development of experimental and test infrastructure facilities were developed and proposed in the form of specific legal acts, which are necessary both for conducting advanced research, and for developing aircrafts, aviation engines and other aviation units and systems.
Platform experts are watching tests a gas piston engine
To ensure the effective functioning of the Technology Platform and its real impact on the development of the industry, including in order to implement our own (initiated by the Platform itself) projects, it is important to carry out as much as possible coordinated work in all areas: participation in the development and realization of strategic documents at the federal level; development (updating) and subsequent implementation of the Platform’s Strategic Research and Development Program; organization of effectively functioning working and expert bodies of TP.
The formation of working groups (directorates) on initiated (proposed for implementation) projects began from the moment the Platform was initiated. However, after the foundation on the basis of the Technological Platform of the legal entity – the Association, the approval mechanism and status of these bodies changed. In accordance with the Charter of the Association, the approval of the formed directorates, working groups, expert and other specialized bodies of the Association, and the appointment of their leaders are within the competence of the Association's Management Board; and these bodies themselves, after the approval of the group members, acquire the status of official bodies of the Platform.
The list of members of the project management bodies of the Platform is compiled in accordance with the basic principles for the foundation and operating of TP, as enshrined in the Charter and other documents of the Association and providing for an equal (proportional) representation of science and industry (business). An important factor in ensuring the effectiveness of these bodies is the membership in them of the most competent specialists in relevant areas (projects); as well as the presence of representatives of state-owned companies - governing organizations of integrated structures.
The main tasks of the project management bodies of TP are:
- development of detailed work plans (programs) for the project;
- development of proposals for financing and co-financing of projects;
- direct management of the project.
When planning, implementing and evaluating the results of project implementation within the framework of the Technology Platform, the technology readiness level is assessed on an obligatory basis, the results of which are used when deciding on the beginning (initiation) of the project and accepting (evaluating readiness for implementation) the results obtained.
Nowdays, within the framework of the Platform’s activities, 3 working groups have been organized and are in operation – «Small and Regional Aviation»; «Engines for Small and Regional aviation», «Use of gas fuel in aviation». Currently it is planned to create a working group on unmanned aircraft systems, as well as in the direction of development of aerostatic aircrafts.
Highly qualified expertise of scientific, technical and innovative projects –
the main tool and condition for the progressive development of the industry
Since the formation of the Technology Platform, we have paid special attention to the organization of expertise, as we clearly understand that without a high-quality and truly independent expertise it is impossible to reasonably make decisions, both on our own projects initiated by the Platform and on projects proposed by other organizations.
The main areas (types) of expertise of the Platform are:
- scientific and technical expertise to assess the scientific validity and technical feasibility of a project (work);
- financial and economic expertise to assess the economic feasibility and effectiveness of the project (work).
Also, a complex expertise may be carried out, including both scientific and technical expertise, and financial and economic (investment) analysis.
In 2017, the Association’s Supervisory Board approved the Regulation on the organization of expertise in the framework of the Platform. Below is a general outline and the main stages of the expertise in accordance with the approved Regulation.
In general, the Regulation of expertise of TP «Air mobility» is quite close to similar documents of leading technology platforms, special innovation funds and other development institutes. However, there are certain differences. The most important task in developing the Regulation was, on the one hand, to ensure a high professional level and competence of experts, and on the other hand, to minimize the influence of subjective factors associated with a possible interest in the results of the examination.
To this end, in order to increase the objectivity and the exclusion of affiliation during the expertise, along with the standard (generally accepted) principles (mechanisms) of ensuring the independence of the participants in the expert process and their protection from possible pressure from interested organizations (persons), additional compensating mechanisms:
1) the obligation of the expert to confirm in writing that there is no conflict of interest with respect to the project (work) under consideration;
2) anonymity of the expert’s identity for applicants (performers), unless the expert himself agrees to the disclosure of this information.
We suggest making the general list of experts of the Technology Platform open to all interested parties - moreover, such information may even be useful to the experts themselves to confirm their status and qualifications.
In addition, following the example of the TP «Medicine of the Future», the Regulation provides for the possibility (right) of the applicant (executor) to reasonably withdraw one or more experts who could potentially participate in the expertise, for example, in case of a conflict of interest.
An important factor in ensuring the independence of expertise and decisions is the principle of proportionality laid down in the Regulation, the essence of which is that the number of experts representing scientific organizations should correspond to the number of representatives of manufacturing (business) organizations. At the same time, when conducting an examination of a project (work) initiated or carried out by a scientific organization, experts representing design or manufacturing organizations must participate; and, conversely, when conducting an examination of a project (work) initiated or carried out by a design or manufacturing organization, experts representing scientific organizations must participate.
In order to assess the practical aspects of the possible (potential) application of the planned (expected) results of the project (work), experts representing organizations - potential consumers of the future results of the project (work) should be involved in the expertise. For TP «Air mobility» these are experts representing of airlines, MRO providers, operators of aviation infrastructure and the ATM system.
TP «Air mobility» Expertise Organization Scheme
In the initial stage of Platform’s functioning, we conducted a large number of expert events at which aviation research and development projects were considered, the authors (initiators) of which were leading scientific and industrial organizations of the industry – Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute named after professor N.E. Zhukovsky, Central Institute of Aviation Motors named after P.I. Baranov, State Research Institute of Aviation Systems, Siberian Aeronautical Research Institute named after S.A. Chaplygin, All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Aviation Materials, JSC «Russian Нelicopters»; as well as projects (areas of work) developed by higher education institutions. In addition, platform experts considered a lot of prospective light and regional aircraft development projects.
Participation of the Technology Platform in the development and approval of the subprogram «Aviation Science and Technology» of the state program «Development of the Aviation Industry for 2013-2025» in 2011-2012 allowed to coordinate and affirm this program, which provides for a significant increase in the amount of planned subsidies for research and development.
Currently, the total number of experts and specialists involved in the activities of the Technology Platform is 625 persons, including 330 – from industry (including design and manufacturing companies and other industrial organizations), 235 – from science (including research institutes of aviation and other industries, universities, institutes of the Russian Academy of Sciences), 31 – from transport organizations (airlines and other air transport organizations), and 29 – from other organizations (consulting, expert, analytical companies).
Of the total number of experts, the officially accredited experts of the Technology Platform, the decision on approval of which was adopted by the Governing Board of the Association, are 166 persons, of whom 50 are doctors, and 51 are candidates of science.
The main areas of the expertise of the Technology Platform:
- airplanes, helicopters, research and development in aerodynamics, strength, aeroacoustics, flight safety and control systems;
- aircraft engines and power plants, research and development in this field;
- airborne electronic equipment (avionics), research and development in this field;
- aviation equipment, systems, research and development in this field;
- aviation materials and technologies for their production;
- experimental and test facilities;
- industrial technologies;
- maintenance, repair, overhaul of aircrafts, engines and aviation equipment;
- air traffic control system (air traffic management system);
- ground-based aviation infrastructure (aerodromes and airports);
- financial, economic and investment analysis of the aviation projects;
- legal and methodological regulation of aviation.
Since 2012, the Technology Platform regularly conducts projects expertise proposed and conducting within the framework of the federal target program «Research and Development in Priority Directions for the Development of the Russian Science and Technology Complex», managing by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education of the Russian Federation.
In total for the period 2012-2019 Platform experts:
- considered 388 proposals on topics (projects) of applied research and development;
- conducted 144 expert reviews of the proposed projects;
- conducted 69 expert reviews of the results of the realization of the projects.
Based on the proposals of the TP «Air mobility and aviation technologies», 4 tender lots were announced (13 winning projects); winners of tenders by the Russian Ministry of Education and Science became 30 projects supported by the Technology Platform.
Platform expert's session to review the results of research projects of the state program
of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation
Also, we conduct an expertise of scientific, technical or innovative projects at the request of the interested organizations. So, in 2019, the Technology Platform conducted an expertise of the following projects:
- Design project of the aircraft for local airlines, proposed for the creation of JSC «UZGA» (UR-1), including in comparison with the TBC-2DTS aircraft developed by Siberian Aeronautical Research Institute named after S.A. Chaplygin (initiated by JSC «Ural Civil Aviation Plant»);
- «Semi-natural modeling of critical flight conditions of a passenger plane and risks caused by the human factor» (initiated by Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute named after professor N.E. Zhukovsky);
- «Development, research and implementation of new electromechanical energy converters for actuators of advanced aircraft (initiated by Ufa State Aviation Technical University);
- «Development of a critical technology for producing a solid-phase compound of ultrafine-grained heat-resistant titanium alloys for a promising GTE compressor» (initiated by Ufa State Aviation Technical University);
- «Development of a multi-agent two-component airborne complex for detecting unauthorized sources of radio emission and counteracting them» (initiated by The Bonch-Bruevich Saint-Petersburg State University of Telecommunications);
- «Development of methods for the creation of intelligent distributed executive and information-control robotic systems and technologies for ground and aerospace purposes» (initiated by Baltic State Technical University «VOENMEH» named after D.F. Ustinov);
- «Development of methods for creating highly reliable electric pump units for liquid thermal control systems of promising unified space platforms for the use of outer space in the interests of the connectedness of the northern territories of Russia and the development of the World Ocean, Arctic and Antarctic» (initiated by Baltic State Technical University «VOENMEH» named after D.F. Ustinov);
- «Development of construction principles, creation methods and basic technical solutions for an energy-information system and on-board microelectromechanical devices of a multisatellite Earth remote sensing system based on a constellation of small spacecraft» (initiated by Baltic State Technical University «VOENMEH» named after D.F. Ustinov);
- «Robotic technology for local navigation of moving objects based on infrared vision system» (Black Sea Higher Naval School named after P.S. Nakhimova).
At present, the stage of organizational construction of our expert activity is being completed – after the formation and approval of the members of the Expert Council of the Technology Platform, the main functions of coordination and management of the expertise process will be transferred to this body.
Organization of professional expertise of scientific, technical and innovative projects is the most important and priority task of the Technology Platform. The full functioning of the Platform’s expertise system will provide quality support for the of the strategic directions of TP activities established during its foundation.
Association's Competitive Advantages
Cooperation with the Association may be useful to various organizations and specialists. Firstly, the Platform includes a large number of scientific, design and manufacturing organizations and experts representing a significant part of the Russian aviation industry. And secondly, given the balanced representation in the Platform of various groups of organizations, the Association is able to carry out coordination and cooperation functions at a high professional level, both in relation to our own projects, and in relation to projects implemented by other entities.
The Association actively cooperates with federal government bodies, including key ministries, the scope of which is within the competence of the Technology Platform - the Ministry of Industry and Trade, the Ministry of Transport, the Ministry of Economic Development, the Ministry of Science and Higher Education, the Federal Air Transport Agency; both houses of the Federal Assembly - the State Duma and the Federation Council.
So, in recent years, we have organized a number of joint events with the Federation Council related to the consideration of the most important issues of the development of aviation Industry and aviation activities in the Russian Federation - the draft Strategy for the Development of the aviation Industry of the Russian Federation for the period until 2030, the state program of the Russian Federation «Development of the Aviation Industry», changes in the tax system of the industry. At the end of 2019, we participated in the preparation of proposals for financing the training of test pilots for experimental aviation in Russia, as well as in the consideration of financing the development of regional airports and legislative support for the development of small aviation in Russia.
The Association plays a particularly significant role at the stage preceding commercialization – when, acting as an integrator and coordinator of the interests of business and science, it coordinates the interests of commercial companies competing among themselves in the market. As a result, we are able to formulate a research and development agenda that is really in demand on the market, the results of which will be useful to customers.
Joint meetings with federal authorities
At the moment, the Association and our experts are ready to cooperate with russian and foreign companies in conducting research and analitical studies in the field of airspace industry and air transportation system, including scientific, technical, financial, economic and other types of expertise. It is also possible to provide consultative services, communication support and organize a cooperation between russian and foreign parties.
Association of organizations to promote aviation development «Technology platform «Air mobility and aviation technologies»
Short name: Association «Technology platform «Air mobility and aviation technologies»
Postal address: Russia, 119049, Moscow, Mytnaya str., bld. 3, office 38
Chairman of the Board – Alexey A. Kim
Теl.: +7 (495) 980-04-23